A good automotive technician must know many things about Detroit fasteners (nuts and bolts) Authentic Terry Rozier Jersey , the different methods of repairing them when they break, and how not to break them. This chapter deals with these parts and procedures. A bolt is an externally threaded fastener that is used with a nut. When it is used without a nut in a threaded or blind hole application to hold components together, it is known as a cap screw. During manufacturing, screw threads are either rolled or cut. Rolled screw threads are larger than the shank of the bolt (the area between the thread and the head of the bolt). To determine the size of a fastener, measure the screw thread. Standard threads come in both coarse and fine threads. The fine thread is called national fine; the coarse thread is national coarse. These are classified, respectively, as UNF and UNC. The "U" stands for unified; it means that the thread interchanges with British threads. A UNF thread callout for a W diameter thread would be % x 24. It would have 24 threads per inch. A UNC would be % x 16. It would have 16 threads per inch.
Metric screw threads are also coarse or fine. The last number in the callout represents the thread pitch in millimeters. It is different from the threads per inch in the unified system. With metric screw threads, the thread pitch is the distance between threads in millimeters. This varies between 1.0 and 2.0 and depends on the diameter of the fastener. If the thread pitch is 1.0 this means there is 1 mm between each screw thread. An 8 mm fine thread could be either 8 x 1.0 or 8 x 1.25; a coarse thread would be 8 x 1.5. Notice that the lower pitch number denotes a finer thread.
Several different kinds of Detroit fasteners are used in automobiles. They are selected according to purpose and price. Fasteners are made of different types and grades of metals, and some are hardened. To toughen, or temper, a metal, it is heated to a specific temperature and then quenched. To soften, or anneal, a metal, it is heated and allowed to cool slowly. Bolts can be broken or damaged by over tightening, bottoming out, or being forced into a thread that does not match. When a bolt is properly tensioned it will be "spring loaded" against the part it is fastening. Bolts are purposely stretched like this to provide clamping force or “spring tension" on the parts being held together. Usually a bolt is stretched to 70% of its elastic limit when properly tightened. The elastic limit of a fastener is reached when it will no longer return to its original shape when loosened. A torque wrench is used to tighten fasteners to a specified tension.
WELLINGTON, July 6 (Xinhua) -- A rare white humpback whale, one of only four ever reported, has been seen frolicking in the Cook Strait between New Zealand's North and South islands, the Department of Conservation (DOC) confirmed Monday.
The whale was thought to be Migaloo, a white humpback that had been seen every year off eastern Australia since 1991, said DOC officials.
The whale was seen with another normal black humpback at the end of the DOC-organized Cook Strait Whale Survey, an annual four- week count of whales passing through channel.
"This is so unique. I have never seen anything like this in New Zealand," marine mammal scientist Carlos Olavarria said in a DOC statement.
Survey Leader Nadine Bott said distinctive features on the whale like those on Migaloo, Australian Aboriginal for "white fellow," strongly indicated it was the same whale.
A skin sample for DNA analysis was taken from the white whale on Sunday with a biopsy and would be compared with Migaloo's DNA to confirm whether it was definitely the same whale.
The analysis would also identify whether the whale was albino or whether its whiteness was due to color variation.
"White humpbacks are extremely rare. Only four have been reported in the world," Bott said in the statement.
"Migaloo is the most famous and another white humpback whale was spotted in Norway this year. Migaloo is thought to have fathered two white calves which have been making appearances along Australia's eastern coast. One has been named MJ, short for Migaloo junior."
The annual whale survey assesses humpback whale recovery since commercial whaling ended in 1964 and is timed for humpback whales' northern migration to South Pacific breeding grounds.
The survey this year had a very high count of 122 humpback whales, surpassing its previous highest of tally of 106 in 2012.
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