"An optimal exchange rate from a trade perspective is one where importers and exporters can

#1 von tujue , 30.10.2018 06:57

Watercolor painting is a great hobby but it can be hard work at the outset. You should concentrate on the basic skills and techniques first before moving on to the more advanced ones. This article provides you with a step by step approach to these skills. Read it if you would like to be successful at painting.

1. Always start each painting with a thin layer of background paint. This is called using a "wash" and is essential in watercolor painting. You cover the entire canvas with one colour of paint. A variation of this technique is where you use slightly increasingly lighter shades of the same color as you work down the page. This is called a "graded wash" as is very effective.

2. You can create fantastic effects by using the "wet on wet" technique in watercolor painting. This is a technique in which layers of wet paint are added to previous layers of wet paint. It needs you to work fast because the art work has to be finished before the first layers have dried. It is highly effective Spud Webb Jersey , though.

3. You get a very different effect if you wait until a color you've put down has dried before you put down another colour. This is known as painting wet-on-dry. Any paint already put down on the paper must be dry before you paint another line if you want sharp edges to what you're creating. The shape will stay exactly as you'd painted it if it is completely dry.

4. Watercolor painting requires that you sometimes leave areas of the canvas completely white. You need to decide which parts of the canvas that you intend to leave white and do not paint on them with a wash.

5. Only use a small number of colors at outset. Limit yourself to, say, three colors, to start off with. You can always go back and add further colors later on.

6. The center of the work is crucial because this is often the focal point. You will need to put something there that is interesting, eye catching and attractive. One tip is to place it ever so slightly away from the actual center. Find some way of highlighting it, too.

7. It is very important to use the full range of paint consistency when watercolor painting. The most intense color is obtained by using the paint as it comes straight from the tube. The lightest color is obtained by using paint very heavily diluted with water. Another way of lessening the strength of the paint is to blot it away with a paper towel whilst it is still wet.

8. You usually apply paints using brushes. However, watercolor painting can also be done by using many other implements, such as sprayers, scrapers, sponges and sticks. Some artists have combined watercolors with pencil drawing and other techniques such as chalk, ink, charcoal, crayon, engraving, monotype, collage and lithography.

9. You need to choose which paints to place upon your pallet. A really good approach is to use a selection of warm and cool colors from each primary. You could try something along the following lines:

* Cadmium red and quinacridone red
* Cadmium yellow and azo yellow
* Cerulean blue and phthalocyanine blue or Prussian blue.

10. Put a piece of paper to one side and use it only to experiment with colors. You can also use it to try out different levels of fluid on the brush. This helps a lot in bringing you controlled results.

11. Always plan your watercolor painting. Some artists might be successful at making it up as they go along but a new painter needs to be in control and plan ahead to create satisfactory results.
Author's Resource Box

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by Jeremy Zhao


CANBERRA, March 29 (Xinhua) -- The Aussie dollar on Friday morning hit 92.72 U.S. cents, its highest level in four months and a level which makes exporters uncomfortable.


Many importers and exporters believe that their ideal level for the dollar is 85 to 90 U.S. cents. When the Aussie dollar rises over 92 cents, the competitiveness of exporters is weakened, according to a survey of Citi.


"An optimal exchange rate from a trade perspective is one where importers and exporters can both find some advantage. Now that the currency has appreciated beyond this level, we're moving into positive territory for importers and headwinds for exporters," Citi's trade and treasury solutions head Scott Southall said.


The preliminary PMI figures for March, which measure activity in China's manufacturing sector which were released on Monday, showed that the industry had slowed down for the third straight month. But the weak data from China just dragged Aussie dollar temporarily to 90.5 cents, from then on the Aussie appreciation rallied for four days.


It seems strange that in spite of recent price fall of iron ore, copper and weak economic data of China, the Aussie dollar continued to rise unaffected. The market logic read the whole thing the other way round. The traders are betting that China will roll out some stimulus measures to stabilize its economy.


Last week Chinese authorities approved five railway projects worth 142 billion yuan (25.03 billion Australian dollars). Surely Beijing wants a soft landing of the economy and any sharp drop of economic activities will hurt the job market and cause instability of the society, which is totally unacceptable for the Chinese government.


On Wednesday, Reserve Bank governor Glenn Stevens expressed positive attitude towards Australian economic outlook at the Credit Suisse Asian Investment Conference in Hong Kong.


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